The Keto Diet Paperback – Sources


A complete list of the sources used for The Keto Diet: The Complete Guide to a High-Fat Diet, written by Leanne Vogel.

Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M., Humayoun Akhtar, Khalid Zaheer, and Rashida Ali. “Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health.” Nutrients 5, no. 4 (2013): 1169–85. doi: 10.3390/nu5041169.

Aburto, Nancy J., Sara Hanson, Hialy Gutierrez, Lee Hooper, Paul Elliott, and Francesco P. Cappuccio. “Effect of Increased Potassium Intake on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.” British Medical Journal 346 (2013): f1378. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f1378.

Achten, Juul, and Asker E. Jeukendrup. “Optimizing Fat Oxidation Through Exercise and Diet.” Nutrition 20, no. 7 (2004): 716–27.

Afaghi, Ahmad, Helen O’Connor, and Chin Moi Chow. High-Glycemic-Index Carbohydrate Meals Shorten Sleep Onset.” American Society for Clinical Nutrition 85, no. 2 (2007): 426–30. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/85/2/426.full.

Ainslie, Deborah A., Joseph Proietto, Barbara C. Fam, and Anne W. Thorburn. “Short-Term, High-Fat Diets Lower Circulating Leptin Concentrations in Rats.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, no. 2 (2000): 438–42. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/2/438.full.

Aksungar, F. B., A. E. Topkaya, and M. Akyildiz. “Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein and Biochemical Parameters During Prolonged Intermittent Fasting.” Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 51, no. 1 (2007): 88–95. doi: 10.1159/000100954.

Alberts, Bruce, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walter. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th ed. New York: Garland Science, 2002.

Alirezaei, Mehrdad, Christopher C. Kemball, Claudia T. Flynn, Malcolm R. Wood, J. Lindsay Whitton, and William B. Kiosses. “Short-Term Fasting Induces Profound Neuronal Autophagy.” Autophagy 6 no. 6 (2010): 702–10. doi: 10.4161/auto.6.6.12376.

Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A., Prasad V. Maddukuri, Hui Han, and Richard H. Karas. “Effect of the Magnitude of Lipid Lowering on Risk of Elevated Liver Enzymes, Rhabdomyolysis, and Cancer.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 50, no. 5 (2007): 409–18. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.02.073.

Anson, Michael R., Zhihong Guo, Rafael de Cabo, Titilola Iyun, Michelle Rios, Adrienne Hagepanos, Donald K. Ingram, Mark A. Lane, and Mark P. Mattson. “Intermittent Fasting Dissociates Beneficial Effects of Dietary Restriction on Glucose Metabolism and Neuronal Resistance to Injury from Calorie Intake.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100, no. 10 (2003): 6216–20. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1035720100.

Armstrong, David, Andrew C. Don-Wauchope, and Elena F. Verdu. “Testing for Gluten-Related Disorders in Clinical Practice: The Role of Serology in Managing the Spectrum of Gluten Sensitivity.” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology 25, no. 4 (2011): 193–197. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088693/.

Austin, Gregory L., Christine B. Dalton, Yuming Hu, Carolyn B. Morris, Jane Hankins, Stephan R. Weinland, Eric C. Westman, William S. Yancy, Jr., and Douglas A. Drossman. “A Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet Improves Symptoms and Quality of Life in Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 7, no. 6 (2009): 706–8. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2009.02.023.

Bannai, Makoto, Nobuhiro Kawai, Kaori Ono, Keiko Nakahara, and Noboru Murakami. “The Effects of Glycine on Subjective Daytime Performance in Partially Sleep-Restricted Healthy Volunteers.” Frontiers in Neurology 3 (2012): 61. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00061.

Basu, Arpita, Mei Du, Misti J. Leyva, Karah Sanchez, Nancy M. Betts, Mingyuan Wu, Christopher E. Aston, and Timothy J. Lyons. “Blueberries Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Men and Women with Metabolic Syndrome.” Journal of Nutrition 140, no. 9 (2010): 1582–87. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.124701.

Batterham, Rachel L., Helen Heffron, Saloni Kapoor, Joanna E. Chivers, Keval Chandarana, Herbert Herzog, Carel W. Le Roux, E. Louise Thomas, Jimmy D. Bell, and Dominic J. Withers. “Critical Role for Peptide YY in Protein-Mediated Satiation and Body-Weight Regulation.” Cell Metabolism 4, no. 3(2006): 223–33. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2006.08.001.

Béliveau, Richard, and Denis Gingras. “Role of Nutrition in Preventing Cancer.” Canadian Family Physician 53, no. 11 (2007): 1905–11. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2231485/.

Beresford, Shirley A. A., Karen C. Johnson, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Norman L. Lasser, Linda G. Snetselaar, Henry R. Black, Garnet L. Anderson et al. “Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Risk of Colorectal Cancer the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 295, no. 6 (2006): 643–54. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.6.643.

Berg, J. M., J. L. Tymoczko, L. Stryer. “Fuel Choice During Exercise Is Determined by Intensity and Duration of Activity.” Section 30.4 in Biochemistry, 5th ed. New York: W. H. Freeman, 2002. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22417/.

Bialek, Agnieszka, and Andrzej Tokarz. “Conjugated Linoleic Acid As A Potential Protective Factor In Prevention Of Breast Cancer.” Postępy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej (Advances in Hygiene and Experimental Medicine) 67 (2013): 6–14. doi: 10.5604/17322693.1028764.

Bielohuby, Maximilian, Dominik Menhofer, Henriette Kirchner, Barbara J. M. Stoehr, Timo D. Müller, Peggy Stock, Madlen Hempel et al. “Induction of Ketosis in Rats Fed Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diets Depends on the Relative Abundance of Dietary Fat and Protein.” Journal of PhysiologyEndocrinology and Metabolism 300, no. 1 (2010): E65–76. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00478.2010.

Blom, Wendy A. M., Anne Lluch, Annette Stafleu, Sophie Vinoy, Jens J. Holst, Gertjan Schaafsma, and Henk F. J. Hendriks. “Effect of a High-Protein Breakfast on the Postprandial Ghrelin Response.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83, no. 2 (2006): 211–20. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/83/2/211.full.

Bosse, John D., and Brian M. Dixon. “Dietary Protein to Maximize Resistance Training: A Review and Examination of Protein Spread and Change Theories.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 42, no. 9 (2012). doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-42.

Brehm, Bonnie J., Randy J. Seeley, Stephen R. Daniels, and David A. D’Alessio. “A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 88, no. 4 (2003): 1617–23. doi: 10.1210/jc.2002-021480

Buijsse, Brian, Edith J. M. Feskens, Frans J. Kok, and Daan Kromhout. “Cocoa Intake, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Zutphen Elderly Study.” Archives of Internal Medicine 166. no. 4 (2006): 411–17. doi: 10.1001/archinte.166.4.411.

Burdge, Graham C., and Philip C. Calder. “Conversion of Alpha-Linolenic Acid to Longer-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Human Adults.” Reproduction Nutrition Development 45, no. 5 (2005): 581–97. doi: 10.1051/rnd:2005047.

Campbell-McBride, Natasha. “Cholesterol: Friend or Foe?” Weston A. Price Foundation. Posted on May 4, 2008. www.westonaprice.org/know-your-fats/cholesterol-friend-or-foe/.

Campos, Hannia, Jacques J. Genest, Jr., Erling Blijlevens, Judith R. McNamara, Jennifer L. Jenner, José M Ordovas, Peter W. F. Wilson, and Ernst J. Schaefer. “Low Density Lipoprotein Particle Size and Coronary Artery Disease.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 12, no. 2 (1992): 187–95.

Canadian Medical Association. “Intermittent Fasting: The Science of Going Without.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 185, no. 9 (2013). doi: 10.1503/cmaj.109–4451.

Carr, Richard D., Marianne O. Larsen, Maria Sörhede Winzell, Katarina Jelic, Ola Lindgren, Carolyn F. Deacon, and Bo Ahrén. “Incretin and Islet Hormonal Responses to Fat and Protein Ingestion in Healthy Men.” American Journal of PhysiologyEndocrinology and Metabolism 295, no. 4 (1990): E779–84. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.90233.2008.

Chalon, Sylvie, Sylvie Vancassel, Luc Zimmer, Denis Guilloteau, and Georges Durand. “Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cerebral Function: Focus on Monoaminergic Neurotransmission.” Lipids 36, no. 9 (2001): 937–44. doi: 10.1007/s11745-001-0804-7.

Chavarro, J. E., J. W. Rich-Edwards, B. Rosner, and Walter C. Willett. “A Prospective Study of Dairy Foods Intake and Anovulatory Infertility.” Human Reproduction 22, no. 5 (2007):1340–47. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dem019.

Chew, Kew-Kim, Alexandra Bremner, Bronwyn Stuckey, Carolyn Earle, and Konrad Jamrozik. “Original Research-Erectile Dysfunction: Alcohol Consumption and Male Erectile Dysfunction: An Unfounded Reputation for Risk?” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 6, no. 5 (2009): 1386–1394. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01115.x.

Chin, Jenna M., Michele L. Merves, Bruce A. Goldberger, Angela Sampson-Cone, and Edward J. Cone. “Caffeine Content of Brewed Teas.” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 32, no. 8 (2008): 702–04. doi: 10.1093/jat/32.8.702.

Christakis, George, Seymour H. Rinzler, Morton Archer, and Arthur Kraus. “Effect of The Anti-Coronary Club Program on Coronary Heart Disease Risk-Factor Status.” Journal of the American Medical Association 198, no. 6 (1966): 597–604. doi: 10.1001/jama.1966.03110190079022.

Conn, Jerome W. “The Advantage of a High Protein Diet in the Treatment of Spontaneous Hypoglycemia: Preliminary Report.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 15, no. 6, (1936): 673–78. doi: 10.1172/JCI100819.

Conn, Jerome W., and L. H. Newburgh. “The Glycemic Response to Isoglucogenic Quantities of Protein and Carbohydrate.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 15, no. 6 (1936): 665–71. doi: 10.1172/JCI100818.

Connor, William E., and Sonja L. Connor. “The Importance of Fish and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Alzheimer Disease.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85, no. 4 (2007): 929–30. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/85/4/929.full.

Corwin, Rebecca L., Terryl J. Hartman, Steven A. Maczuga, and Barry I. Graubard. “Dietary Saturated Fat Intake Is Inversely Associated with Bone Density in Humans: Analysis of NHANES III.” Journal of Nutrition 136, no. 1 (2006): 159–65.

Crozier, Stephen J., Amy G. Preston, Jeffrey W. Hurst, Mark J. Payne, Julie Mann, Larry Hainly, and Debra L. Miller. “Cacao Seeds Are a ‘Super Fruit’: A Comparative Analysis of Various Fruit Powders and Products.” Chemistry Central Journal 5 (2011): 5. doi: 10.1186/1752-153X-5-5.

Dahl-Jorgensen, Knut, Geir Joner, and Kristian F. Hanssen. “Relationship Between Cows’ Milk Consumption and Incidence of IDDM in Childhood.” Diabetes Care 14, no. 11 (1991): 1081–83. doi: 10.2337/diacare.14.11.1081.

Daley, Cynthia A., Amber Abbott, Patrick S. Doyle, Glenn A. Nader, and Stephanie Larson. “A Review of Fatty Acid Profiles and Antioxidant Content in Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Beef.” Nutrition Journal 9, no. 10 (2010). doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-10.

Davis, P. G., and Stephen D. Phinney. “Differential Effects of Two Very Low Calorie Diets on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance.” International Journal of Obesity 14, no. 9 (1990): 779–87.

de Roos, Nicole M., Evert G. Schouten, and Martjin B. Katan. “Consumption of a Solid Fat Rich in Lauric Acid Results in a More Favorable Serum Lipid Profile in Healthy Men and Women than Consumption of a Solid Fat Rich in Trans-Fatty Acids.” Journal of Nutrition 131, no. 2 (2001): 242–45.

de Souza, Russell J., Andrew Mente, Adriana Maroleanu, Adrian I. Cozma, Vanessa Ha, Teruko Kishibe, Elizabeth Uleryk et al. “Intake of Saturated and Trans Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of All Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular Disease, and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.” British Medical Journal 351 (2015): h3978. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h3978.

Dhawan, Veena, and Sanjay Jain. “Garlic Supplementation Prevents Oxidative DNA Damage in Essential Hypertension.” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 275 (2005); 275: 85–94. doi: 10.1007/s11010-005-0824-2.

Dinan, T. G., and J. F. Cryan. (2013). “Melancholic Microbes: A Link Between Gut Microbiota and Depression?” Neurogastroenterology and Motility 25, no. 9 (2013): 713–19. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12198.

Djoussé, Luc, Paul N. Hopkins, Donna K. Arnett, James S. Pankow, Ingrid Borecki, Kari E. North, and R. Curtis Ellison. “Chocolate Consumption Is Inversely Associated with Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Coronary Arteries: The NHLBI Family Heart Study.” Clinical Nutrition 30, no. 1 (2011): 38–43.

Donaghue, K. C., M. M. Pena, A. K. Chan, B. L. Blades, J. King, L. H. Storlien, and M. Silink. “Beneficial Effects of Increasing Monounsaturated Fat Intake in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 48, no. 3 (2000): 193–99. doi: 10.1016/S0168-8227(00)00123-6.

Dulloo, A. G., M. Fathi, N. Mensi, and L. Girardier L. “Twenty-Four-Hour Energy Expenditure And Urinary Catecholamines Of Humans Consuming Low-To-Moderate Amounts Of Medium-Chain Triglycerides: A Dose-Response Study In A Human Respiratory Chamber.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, no. 3 (1996): 152–58.

Eckel, Robert H., Alan S. Hanson, Arnold Y. Chen, Jeffrey N. Berman, Trudy J. Yost, and Eric P. Brass. “Dietary Substitution of Medium-Chain Triglycerides Improves Insulin-Mediated Glucose Metabolism in NIDDM Subjects.” Diabetes 41, no. 5 (1992): 641–47. doi: 10.2337/diab.41.5.641.

Enig, Mary. “Saturated Fats and the Lungs.” Weston A. Price Foundation. Posted on June 30, 2000. www.westonaprice.org/know-your-fats/saturated-fats-and-the-lungs/.

Enriori, Pablo J., Anne E. Evans, Puspha Sinnayah, and Michael A. Cowley. “Leptin Resistance and Obesity.” Obesity 14, no. S8 (2006): 254S–58S. doi: 10.1038/oby.2006.319.

Environmental Working Group. “EWG’s 2016 Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce.” Environmental Working Group, 2016. www.ewg.org/foodnews/.

Esfahani, Amin, Julia M. W. Wong, Arash Mirrahimi, Chris R. Villa, and Cyril W. C. Kendall. “The Application of the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load In Weight Loss: A Review of the Clinical Evidence.” International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 63, no. 1 (2011): 7–13. doi: 10.1002/iub.418.

Faeh, David, Kaori Minehira, Jean-Marc Schwarz, Raj Periasamy, Seongsoo Park, and Luc Tappy. “Effect of Fructose Overfeeding and Fish Oil Administration on Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis and Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Men.” Diabetes July 54, no. 7 (2005): 1907–13. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.54.7.1907.

Faris, Mo’es Al-Islam E., Safia Kacimi, Ref’at A. Al-Kurd, Mohammad A. Fararjeh, Yasser K. Bustanji, Mohammad K. Mohammad, and Mohammad L. Salem. “Intermittent Fasting During Ramadan Attenuates Proinflammatory Cytokines and Immune Cells in Healthy Subjects.” Nutrition Research 32, no. 12 (2012): 947–55. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2012.06.021.

Feranil, Alan B., Paulita L. Duazo, Christopher W. Kuzawa, and Linda S. Adair. “Coconut Oil Predicts a Beneficial Lipid Profile in Pre-Menopausal Women in the Philippines.” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 20, no. 2 (2011): 190–195. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146349/.

Foran, Jeffery A., David O. Carpenter, M. Coreen Hamilton, Barbara A. Knuth, Steven J. Schwager. “Risk-Based Consumption Advice for Farmed Atlantic and Wild Pacific Salmon Contaminated with Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Compounds.” Environmental Health Perspectives 113, no. 5 (2005): 552–56. doi: 10.1289%2Fehp.7626.

Forsythe, Cassandra E., Stephen D. Phinney, Maria Luz Fernandez, Erin E. Quann, Richard J. Wood, Doug M. Bibus, William J. Kraemer, Richard D. Feinman, and Jeff S. Volek. “Comparison of Low Fat and Low Carbohydrate Diets on Circulating Fatty Acid Composition and Markers of Inflammation.” Lipids 43, no. 1 (2008): 65–77. doi: 10.1007/s11745-007-3132-7.

Foster, Jane A., and Karen-Anne McVey Neufeld. “Gut-brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression.” Trends Neurosci 36, no. 5 (2013): 305–12. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.01.005.

Gao, Zhanguo, Jun Yin, Jin Zhang, Robert E. Ward, Roy J. Martin, Michael Lefevre, William T. Cefalu, and Jianping Ye. “Butyrate Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Energy Expenditure in Mice.” Diabetes 58, no. 7 (2009): 1509–17. doi: 10.2337/db08-1637.

Gargouri, Boutheina, Akram Zribi, and Mohamed Bouaziz. “Effect of Containers on the Quality of Chemlali Olive Oil During Storage.” Journal of Food Science and Technology 52, no. 4 (2015): 1948–59. doi: 10.1007/s13197-014-1273-2.

Gerster, Helga. “Can Adults Adequately Convert Alpha-Linolenic Acid (18:3n-3) to Eicosapentaenoic Acid (20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (22:6n-3)?” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 68, no. 3 (1998): 159–73.

Gibson, A. A., R.V. Seimon, C. M. Lee, J. Ayre, J. Franklin, T. P. Markovic, I. D. Caterson, and A. Sainsbury. “Do Ketogenic Diets Really Suppress Appetite? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Obesity Reviews 16, no. 1 (2015): 64–76. doi: 10.1111/obr.12230.

Ginsberg, Henry, Jerrold M. Olefsky, George Kimmerling, Phyllis Crapo, and Gerald M. Reaven. “Induction of Hypertriglyceridemia by a Low-Fat Diet.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 42, no. 4 (2016): 729–35. doi: 10.1210/jcem-42-4-729.

Gopinath, Bamini, Anette E. Buyken, Victoria M. Flood, Marianne Empson, Elena Rochtchina, and Paul Mitchell. “Consumption of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Fish, and Nuts and Risk of Inflammatory Disease Mortality.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93, no. 5 (2011): 1073–79. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.009977.

Gross, Lee S., Li Li, Earl S. Ford ES, and Simin Liu. “Increased Consumption of Refined Carbohydrates and the Epidemic of Type 2 Diabetes in the United States: An Ecologic Assessment.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 5 (2004): 774–79. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/5/774.long.

Håkan Melhus, and Liisa Byberg. “Milk Intake and Risk of Mortality and Fractures in Women and Men: Cohort Studies.” British Medical Journal 349 (2014): g6015. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g6015.

Hamazaki T., H. Okuyama, Y. Ogushi, and R. Hama. “Towards A Paradigm Shift in Cholesterol Treatment: A Re-Examination of the Cholesterol Issue in Japan.” Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 66, suppl. 4 (2015): 1–116. doi: 10.1159/000381654.

Hanif Palla, Amber, and Anwar-ul Hassan Gilani. “Dual Effectiveness of Flaxseed in Constipation and Diarrhea: Possible Mechanism.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 169 (2015): 60–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.064.

Hanif Palla, Amber, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Samra Bashir, Najeeb ur-Rehman, Junaid Iqbal, and Anwar-ul Hassan Gilani. “Pharmacological Basis for the Medicinal Use of Linum Usitatissimum (Flaxseed) in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diarrhea.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 160 (2015): 61–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.11.030.

Hannan, Marian T., Katherine L. Tucker, Bess Dawson-Hughes, L. Adrienne Cupples, David T. Felson, and Douglas P. Kiel. “Effect of Dietary Protein on Bone Loss in Elderly Men and Women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study.” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 15, no. 12 (2000): 2504–12. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.12.2504.

Havemann, L., S. J. West, J. H. Goedecke, I. A. Macdonald, A. St. Clair Gibson, T. D. Noakes, and E. V. Lambert. “Fat Adaptation Followed by Carbohydrate Loading Compromises High-Intensity Sprint Performance.” Journal of Applied Physiology 100, no. 1 (2006): 194–202. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00813.2005

Heilbronn, Leonie K., Steven R. Smith, Corby Martin, Stephen D. Anton, and Eric Ravussin. “Alternate-Day Fasting in Non-Obese Subjects: Effects on Body Weight, Body Composition, and Energy Metabolism.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81, no. 1 (2005): 69–73. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/81/1/69.long,

Henderson, Samuel T. “Ketone Bodies as a Therapeutic for Alzheimer’s Disease.” Neurotherapeutics 5, no. 3 (2008): 470–80. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2008.05.004.

Hession, M., C. Rolland, U. Kulkarni, A. Wise, and J. Broom. “Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Low-Carbohydrate vs. Low-Fat/Low-Calorie Diets in The Management of Obesity and Its Comorbidities.” Obesity Reviews 10, no. 1 (2009): 36–50. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00518.x

Hibbeln, Joseph R., Levi R. G. Nieminen, Tanya L. Blasbalg, Jessica A. Riggs, and William E. M. Lands. “Healthy Intakes of N−3 and N−6 Fatty Acids: Estimations Considering Worldwide Diversity.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83, no. 6 (2006): S1483–1493S. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/83/6/S1483.full.

Higdon, Jane V., Barbara Delage, David E. Williams, and Roderick H. Dashwood. “Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis.” Pharmacological Research 55, no. 3 (2007): 224–36.

Hite, Adele H., Richard David Feinman, Gabriel Guzman, Morton Satin, Pamela A. Schoenfeld, and Richard J. Wood. “In the Face of Contradictory Evidence: Report of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Committee.” Nutrition 26, no. 10 (2010): 915–24. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.08.012.

Hites, Ronald A., Jeffery A. Foran, Steven J. Schwager, Barbara A. Knuth, M. Coreen Hamilton, and David O. Carpenter.” Global Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Farmed and Wild Salmon.” Environmental Science & Technology 38, no. 19 (2004): 4945–49. doi: 10.1021/es049548m.

Ho, K. Y., J. D. Veldhuis, M. L. Johnson, R. Furlanetto, W. S. Evans, K. G. Alberti, and M. O. Thorner. “Fasting Enhances Growth Hormone Secretion and Amplifies the Complex Rhythms of Growth Hormone Secretion in Man.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 81, no. 4 (1988): 968–75. doi: 10.1172/JCI113450.

Hoffman, Jay R., and Michael J. Falvo. “Protein–Which Is Best?” Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 3 (2004): 118–130.

Hooijmans, Carlijn R., C. M. Pieternel Pasker-de Jong, Rob B. M. de Vries, and Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga. “The Effects of Long-Term Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Cognition and Alzheimer’s Pathology in Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 28, no. 1 (2012): 191–209. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2011-111217.

Hooper, Lee, Carolyn D. Summerbell, Julian P. T. Higgins, Rachel L. Thompson, Gillian Clements, Nigel Capps, George Davey Smith, Rudolph Riemersma, and Shah Ebrahim. “Reduced or Modified Dietary Fat for Preventing Cardiovascular Disease.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2 (2000): CD002137. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002137.

Howard, Barbara V., Linda Van Horn, Judith Hsia, JoAnn E. Manson, Marcia L. Stefanick, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Lewis H. Kuller et al. “Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 295, no. 6 (2006): 655–66. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.6.655.

Hu X, R.J. Jandacek, and W.S. White. “Intestinal Absorption of Beta-Carotene Ingested with a Meal Rich in Sunflower Oil or Beef Tallow: Postprandial Appearance in Triacylglycerolrich Lipoproteins in Women.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, no. 5 (2000): 1170–80.

Hubbard, N. E., and K. L. Erickson. “Enhancement of Metastasis from a Transplantable Mouse Mammary Tumor by Dietary Linoleic Acid.” Cancer Research 47, no. 23 (1987): 6171–75.

Jahoor, F., E. J. Peters, and R. R. Wolfe. “The Relationship Between Gluconeogenic Substrate Supply and Glucose Production in Humans.” American Journal of PhysiologyEndocrinology and Metabolism 258, no. 2 (1990): E288–96.

Jean Halloran. “The Overuse of Antibiotics in Food Animals Threatens Public Health.” Consumers Union: Policy and Action from Consumer Reports. Published November 9, 2012. http://consumersunion.org/research/the-overuse-of-antibiotics-in-food-animals-threatens-public-health/.

Johnson, James B., Warren Summer, Roy G. Cutler, Bronwen Martin, Dong-Hoon Hyun, Vishwa D. Dixit, Pearson M et al. “Alternate Day Calorie Restriction Improves Clinical Findings and Reduces Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Overweight Adults with Moderate Asthma.” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 42, no. 5 (2005): 129–37. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.12.005.

Johnston, Carol S., Carol S. Day, and Pamela D. Swan. “Postprandial Thermogenesis Is Increased 100% on a High-Protein, Low-Fat Diet Versus a High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diet in Healthy, Young Women.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 21, no. 1 (2002):55–61. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2002.10719194.

Johnston, Carol S., Cindy M. Kim, and Amanda J. Buller. “Vinegar Improves Insulin Sensitivity to a High-Carbohydrate Meal in Subjects with Insulin Resistance or Type 2 Diabetes.” Diabetes Care 27, no. 1 (2004): 281–282. doi: 10.2337/diacare.27.1.281.

Johnstone, Alexandra M., Graham W. Horgan, Sandra D. Murison, David M. Bremner, and Gerald E. Lobley. “Effects of a High-Protein Ketogenic Diet on Hunger, Appetite, and Weight Loss in Obese Men Feeding Ad Libitum.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87, no. 1 (2008) 44–55.

Jones, Peter J. H., Anuradha S. Pappu, Lauren Hatcher, Zi-Chi Li, D. Roger Illingworth, and William E. Connor. “Dietary Cholesterol Feeding Suppresses Human Cholesterol Synthesis Measured by Deuterium Incorporation and Urinary Mevalonic Acid Levels.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 16, no. 10 (1996): 1222–28. doi: 10.1161/01.ATV.16.10.1222.

Josling, Peter. “Preventing the Common Cold with a Garlic Supplement: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Survey.” Advances in Therapy 18, no. 4 (2001): 189–93. doi: 10.1007/BF02850113.

Kahlon, Talwinder S., Mei-Chen Chiu, and Mary H. Chapman. “team Cooking Significantly Improves In Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Collard Greens, Kale, Mustard Greens, Broccoli, Green Bell Pepper, and Cabbage.” Nutrition Research 28, no. 6 (2008): 351–7. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.03.007.

Katayose, Yasuko, Mami Tasaki, Hitomi Ogata, Yoshio Nakata, Kumpei Tokuyama, and Makoto Satoh. “Metabolic Rate and Fuel Utilization During Sleep Assessed by Whole-Body Indirect Calorimetry.” Metabolism Clinical and Experimental 58. no. 7 (2009): 920–26. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.02.025.

Kavanagh, Kylie, Kate L. Jones, Janet Sawyer, Kathryn Kelley, J. Jeffrey Carr, Janice D. Wagner, and Lawrence L. Rudel. “Trans Fat Diet Induces Abdominal Obesity and Changes in Insulin Sensitivity in Monkeys.” Obesity 15, no. 7 (2007): 1675–84. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.200.

Keen, C. L., and S. Zidenberg-Cherr. “Manganese.” In Present Knowledge in Nutrition, 7th ed., edited by Ekhard E. Ziegler, Jr. and L. J. Filer, 334–43. Washington D. C.: ILSI Press, 1996.

Kerstetter, Jane E., Anne M. Kenny, and Karl L. Insogna. “Dietary Protein and Skeletal Health: A Review of Recent Human Research.” Current Opinion in Lipidology 22, no. 1 (2011): 16–20. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e3283419441.

Kniskern, Megan A., and Carol S. Johnston. “Protein Dietary Reference Intakes May Be Inadequate for Vegetarians if Low Amounts of Animal Protein Are Consumed.” Nutrition 27, no. 6 (2011): 727–30. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.08.024.

Kondo, Tomoo, Mikiya Kishi, Takashi Fushimi, Shibobu Ugajin, and Takayuki Kaga. “Vinegar Intake Reduces Body Weight, Body Fat Mass, and Serum Triglyceride Levels in Obese Japanese Subjects.” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 73, no. 8 (2009): 1837–43. doi: 10.1271/bbb.90231.

Kono, Hiroshi, Hideki Fujii, Masami Asakawa, Masayuki Yamamoto, Masanori Matsuda, Akira Maki, and Yoshiro Matsumoto. “Protective Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides on the Liver and Gut in Rats Administered Endotoxin.” Annals of Surgery 237, no. 2 (2003): 246–55. doi: 10.1097%2F01.SLA.0000048450.44868.B1.

Koppes, Lando L. J., Jacqueline M. Dekker, Henk F. J. Hendriks, Lex M. Bouter, and Robert J. Heine. “Moderate Alcohol Consumption Lowers the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.” Diabetes Care 28, no. 3 (2005): 719–25. doi: 10.2337/diacare.28.3.719.

Krebs, Nancy F., Dexiang Gao, Jane Gralla, Juliet S. Collins, and Susan L. Johnson. “Efficacy and Safety of a High Protein, Low Carbohydrate Diet for Weight Loss in Severely Obese Adolescents.” Journal of Pediatrics 157, no. 2 (2010): 252–58. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.02.010.

Krikorian, Robert, Marcelle D. Shidler, Krista Dangelo, Sarah C. Couch, Stephen C. Benoit, and Deborah J. Clegg. “Dietary Ketosis Enhances Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment.” Neurobiology of Aging 33, no. 2 (2012): 425e19–e27. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.10.006.

Kris-Etherton, P. M., Denise Shaffer Taylor, Shaomei Yu-Poth, Peter Huth, Kristin Moriarty, Valerie Fishell, Rebecca L. Hargrove, Guixiang Zhao, and Terry D. Etherton. “Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Food Chain in the United States.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, no. 1 (2000): 179S–188S. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/1/179S.long.

Kristensen, M., F. Savorani, S. Christensen, S. B. Engelsen, S. Bügel, S. Toubro, I. Tetens, and A. Astrup. “Flaxseed Dietary Fibers Suppress Postprandial Lipemia and Appetite Sensation in Young Men.” Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Disease 23, no. 2 (2013): 136–43. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2011.03.004.

Kritchevsky, David, A. Tepper, and David M. Klurfeld. “Lectin May Contribute to the Atherogenicity of Peanut Oil.” Lipids 33, no. 8 (1998): 821–23. doi: 10.1007/s11745-998-0276-9.

Kruger, Marlena C., and David F. Horrobin. “Calcium Metabolism, Osteoporosis and Essential Fatty Acids: A Review.” Progress in Lipid Research 36, no. 2–3 (1997): 131–51.

Lajolo, Franco M., and Maria Inés Genovese. “Nutritional Significance of Lectins and Enzyme Inhibitors from Legumes.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, no. 22 (2002): 6592–98. doi: 10.1021/jf020191k.

Langfort, J., W. Pilis, R. Zarzeczny, K. Nazar, and H. Kaciuba-Uściłko. “Effect of Low-Carbohydrate-Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Hormonal Responses to Graded Exercise in Men.” Journal of Physiology Pharmacology 47, no. 2 (1996): 361–71.

Lanou, Amy Joy. “Should Dairy Be Recommended as Part of a Healthy Vegetarian Diet? Counterpoint.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89, no. 5 (2009): 1638S–42S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736P.

Laval University. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Against Parkinson’s, Study Says.” ScienceDaily. November 26, 2007. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071126110453.htm.

Lee, Changhan, Lizzia Raffaghello, Sebastian Brandhorst, Fernando M. Safdie, Giovanna Bianchi, Alejandro Martin-Montalvo, Vito Pistoia et al. “Fasting Cycles Retard Growth of Tumors and Sensitize a Range of Cancer Cell Types to Chemotherapy.” Science Translational Medicine 4, no. 124 (2012): 124ra27. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003293.

Leheska, J. M., L. D. Thompson, J. C. Howe, E. Hentges, J. Boyce, J. C. Brooks, B. Shriver, L. Hoover, and M. F. Miller. “Effects of Conventional and Grass-Feeding Systems on the Nutrient Composition of Beef.” Journal of Animal Science 86, no. 12 (2008): 3575–85. doi: 10.2527/jas.2007-0565.

Lennerz, Belinda S., David C. Alsop, Laura M. Holsen, Emily Stern, Rafael Rojas, Cara B. Ebbeling, Jill M. Goldstein, and David S. Ludwig. “Effects of Dietary Glycemic Index on Brain Regions Related to Reward and Craving in Men.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98, no. 3 (2013) 641–47. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.064113.

Lin, Hua V., and Domenico Accili. “Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Production in Health and Disease.” Cell Metabolism 14, no. 1 (2011): 9–19. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2011.06.003.

Linn, T., B. Santosa, D. Grönemeyer, S. Aygen, N. Scholz, M. Busch, and R. G. Bretzel. “Effect of Long-Term Dietary Protein Intake on Glucose Metabolism in Humans.” Diabetologia 43, no. 10 (2000): 1257–65.

Lomenick, Jefferson P., Maria S. Melguizo, Sabrina L. Mitchell, Marshall L. Summar, and James W. Anderson. “Effects of Meals High in Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat on Ghrelin and Peptide YY Secretion in Prepubertal Children.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 94, no. 11 (2011): 4463–471. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-0949.

Loyola University Health System. “Moderate Drinking May Protect Against Alzheimer’s and Cognitive Impairment, Study Suggests.” ScienceDaily, August 19, 2011. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110816112134.htm.

Ludwig, David S., Joseph A. Majzoub, Ahmad Al-Zahrani, Gerard E. Dallal, Isaac Blanco, and Susan B. Roberts. “High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating, and Obesity.” Pediatrics 103, no. 3 (1999): E26. doi: 10.1542/peds.103.3.e26.

Malosse, D., H. Perron, A. Sasco, and J. M. Seigneurin. “Correlation Between Milk and Dairy Product Consumption and Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence: A Worldwide Study.” Neuroepidemiology 11 (1992): 304–12. doi: 10.1159/000110946.

Manninen, Anssi H. “Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood ‘Villains’ of Human Metabolism.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 1, no. 2: (2004): 7–11. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-1-2-7.

Mansell, P. I., I. W. Fellows, and I. A. Macdonald. “Enhanced Thermogenic Response to Epinephrine After 48-H Starvation in Humans.” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 258, no. 1 (1990): R87–93.

Marrone, Jill A., Gianni F. Maddalozzo, Adam J. Branscum, Karin Hardin, Lynn Cialdella-Kam, Kenneth A. Philbrick, Anne C. Breggia, Clifford J. Rosen, Russell T. Turner, and Urszula T. Iwaniec. “Moderate Alcohol Intake Lowers Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women.” Menopause 19, no. 9 (2012): 974–79. doi: 10.1097/GME.0b013e31824ac071.

Martin, Corby K., Diane Rosenbaum, Hongmei Han, Paual J. Geiselman, Holly R. Wyatt, James O. Hill, Carrie Brill et al. “Change in Food Cravings, Food Preferences, and Appetite During a Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet.” Obesity 19, no. 10 (2011): 1963–70. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.62.

Martin, III., W. H., G. P. Dalsky, B. F. Hurley, D. E. Matthews, D. M. Bier, J. M. Hagberg, M. A. Rogers, D. S. King, and J. O. Holloszy. “Effect of Endurance Training on Plasma Free Fatty Acid Turnover and Oxidation During Exercise.” Journal of PhysiologyEndocrinology and Metabolism 265, no. 5 (1993): E708–14.

Mata, P., R. Alonso, A. Lopez-Farre, J. M. Ordovas, C. Lahoz, C. Garces, C. Caramelo et al. “Effect of Dietary Fat Saturation on LDL Oxidation and Monocyte Adhesion to Human Endothelial Cells In Vitro.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 16, no. 11 (1996): 1347–55.

Mattson, Mark P., and Ruiqian Wan. “Beneficial Effects of Intermittent Fasting and Caloric Restriction on the Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Systems.” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 16, no. 3 (2005): 129–137. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.12.007.

Mavropoulos, John C., William S. Yancy, Juanita Hepburn, and Eric C. Westman. “The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet on the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.” Nutrition & Metabolism 2, no. 35 (2005). doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-35.

McBride, Patrick E. “Triglycerides and Risk for Coronary Heart Disease.” Journal of the American Medical Association 298, no. 3 (2007): 336–38. doi: 10.1001/jama.298.3.336.

McClernon, F. Joseph, William S. Yancy, Jr., Jacqueline A. Eberstein, Robert C. Atkins, and Eric C. Westman. “The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and a Low-Fat Diet on Mood, Hunger, and Other Self-Reported Symptoms.” Obesity 15, no. 1 (2007): 182–87.

Medical College of Georgia. “Scientists Learn More About How Roughage Keeps You ‘Regular.’” Science Daily 23 (2006). www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/08/060823093156.htm.

Menendez, J. A., L. Vellon, R. Colomer, and R. Lupu. “Oleic Acid, The Main Monounsaturated Fatty Acid of Olive Oil, Suppresses Her-2/Neu (Erbb-2) Expression and Synergistically Enhances the Growth Inhibitory Effects of Trastuzumab (Herceptin) in Breast Cancer Cells with Her-2/Neu Oncogene Amplification.” Annals of Oncology 16, no. 3 (2005): 359–71. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdi090.

Mensink, Ronald P., and Martijn B. Katan. “Effect of Dietary Fatty Acids on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins: A Meta-Analysis of 27 Trials.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 12, no. 8 (1992): 911–19.

Mitchell, G. A., S. Kassovska-Bratinova, Y. Boukaftane, M. F. Robert, S. P. Wang, L. Ashmarina, M. Lambert, P. Lapierre, and E. Potier. “Medical Aspects of Ketone Body Metabolism.” Clinical Investigative Medicine 18, no. 3. (1995): 193–216.

Mitrakou, A., C. Ryan, T. Veneman, M. Mokan, T. Jenssen, I. Kiss, J. Durrant, P. Cryer, and J. Gerich. “Hierarchy of Glycemic Thresholds for Counterregulatory Hormone Secretion, Symptoms, and Cerebral Dysfunction.” American Journal of PhysiologyEndocrinology and Metabolism 260, no. 1 (1991): E67–74.

Morais, J. A., S. Chevalier, and R. Gougeon. “Protein Turnover and Requirements in the Healthy and Frail Elderly.” Journal of Nutrition Health Aging 10, no. 4 (2006): 272–83.

Mozaffarian, Dariush, Tobias Pischon, Susan E. Hankinson, Nader Rifai, Kaumudi Joshipura, W alter C. Willet, and Eric B. Rimm. “Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and systemic inflammation in women.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 4 (2004): 606–12. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/79/4/606.long.

Mueller, Tom. Extra Virginity: The Sublime and Scandalous World of Olive Oil. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2013.

Mukamal, Kenneth J., and Eric B. Rimm. “Alcohol’s Effects on the Risk for Coronary Heart Disease.” National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh25-4/255-261.htm

Munger, Ronald G., James R. Cerhan, and Brian C-H Chiu. “Prospective Study of Dietary Protein Intake and Risk of Hip Fracture in Postmenopausal Women.” American Society for Clinical Nutrition 69, no. 1 (1999): 147–52.

Murff, Harvey J., Xiao-Ou Shu, Honglan Li, Gong Yang, Xiauyan Wu, Hui Cai, Wanqing Wen, Yu-Tang Gao, and Wei Zheng. “Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Breast Cancer Risk in Chinese Women: A Prospective Cohort Study.” International Journal of Cancer 128, no. 6 (2011): 1434–41. doi: 10.1002/ijc.25703.

Nagao, Koji, and Teruyoshi Yanagita. “Medium-Chain Fatty Acids: Functional Lipids for the Prevention and Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome.” Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods Vol 61, no. 3 (2010): 208–12. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.11.007.

Nair, J., C. E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L. M. Valsta, and H. Bartsch. “High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Drastically Increase the Formation of Etheno-DNA Base Adducts in White Blood Cells of Female Subjects.” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 6, no. 8 (1997): 597–601.

Nair, K. S., D. Halliday, and J. S. Garrow. “Thermic Response to Isoenergetic Protein, Carbohydrate or Fat Meals in Lean and Obese Subjects.” Clinical Science 65, no. 3 (1983): 307–12.

Nakatsuji, Teruaki, Mandy C. Kao, Jia-You Fang, Christos C. Zouboulis, Liangfang Zhang, Richard L. Gallo, and Chun-Ming Huang. “Antimicrobial Property of Lauric Acid Against Propionibacterium Acnes: Its Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris.” Journal of Investigative Dermatology 129, no. 10 (2009): 2480–88. doi: 10.1038/jid.2009.93.

Nanji, Amin A., D. Zakim, Amir Rahemtulla, T. Daly, L. Miao, S. Zhao, S. Khwaja, S. R. Tahan, and Andrew J. Dannenberg. “Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids Down-Regulate Cyclooxygenase-2 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alfa and Reverse Fibrosis in Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease in the Rat.” epatology 26, no. 6 (1997): 1538–45. doi: 10.1002/hep.510260622.

Nanji, Amin A., Kalle Jokelainen, George L. Tipoe, Amir Rahemtulla, and Andrew J. Dannenberg. “Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids Reverse Inflammatory and Fibrotic Changes in Rat Liver Despite Continued Ethanol Administration.” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 299, no. 2 (2001): 638–44.

Newsmax Health.Trans Fats Wreck Memory: Study. Newsmax Health. Published November 18, 2014. www.newsmax.com/health/health-news/trans-fats-memory-arteries/2014/11/18/id/608093/.

Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M., Mary Dean Coleman, Joanne J. Volpe, and Kathy W. Hosig. “Perceived Hunger Is Lower and Weight Loss Is Greater in Overweight Premenopausal Women Consuming a Low-Carbohydrate/High-Protein vs High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 105, no. 9 (2005): 1433–1437.

Noakes, Manny, Jennifer B. Keogh, Paul R. Foster, and Peter M. Clifton. “Effect of an Energy-Restricted, High-Protein, Low-Fat Diet Relative to a Conventional High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diet on Weight Loss, Body Composition, Nutritional Status, and Markers of Cardiovascular Health in Obese Women.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81, no. 6 (2005): 1298–306.

Noakes, Manny, Paul R. Foster, Jennifer B. Keogh, Anthony P. James, John C. Mamo, and Peter M. Clifton. “Comparison of Isocaloric Very Low Carbohydrate/High Saturated Fat and High Carbohydrate/Low Saturated Fat Diets on Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk.” Nutrition & Metabolism 3, no. 7 (2006). doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-3-7.

Nseir, William, Fares Nassar, and Nimer Assy. “Soft Drinks Consumption and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.” World Journal of Gastroenterology 16, no. 21 (2010): 2579–88. doi: 10.3748/WJG.v16.i21.2579.

Nuttall, Frank Q., Angela Ngo, and Mary C. Gannon. “Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Production and the Role of Gluconeogenesis in Humans: Is the Rate of Gluconeogenesis Constant?” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 24 (2008): 438–58. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.863.

Odegaard, Andrew O., and Mark A. Pereira. “Trans Fatty Acids, Insulin Resistance, and Type 2 Diabetes.” Nutrition Reviews 64, no. 8 (2006): 364–72. doi: 10.1111/j.17534887.2006.tb00221.x.

Paddon-Jones, Douglas, Eric C. Westman, Richard D. Mattes, Robert R. Wolfe, Arne Astrup, and Margriet Westerterp-Plantenga. “Protein, Weight Management, and Satiety.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87, no. 5 (2008): 1558S–61S. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/87/5/1558S.long

Paddon-Jones, Douglas, Kevin R. Short, Wayne W. Campbell, Elena Volpi, and Robert R. Wolfe. “Role of Dietary Protein in the Sarcopenia of Aging.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87. no. 5 (2008): 1562S–66S. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/87/5/1562S.full.

Park, Yeonhwa, Karen J. Albright, Wei Liu, Jayne M. Storkson, Mark E. Cook, and Michael W. Pariza. “Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Body Composition in Mice.” Lipids 32, no. 8 (1997): 853–58. doi: 10.1007/s11745-997-0109-x.

Parks, Elizabeth J., Ronald M. Krauss, Mark P. Christiansen, Richard A. Neese, and Marc K. Hellerstein. “Effects of a Low-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Diet on VLDL-Triglyceride Assembly, Production, and Clearance.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 104, no. 8 (1999): 1087–96. doi: 10.1172/JCI6572.

Pasiakos, Stefan M., Tom M. McLellan, and Harris R. Lieberman. “The Effects of Protein Supplements on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Aerobic and Anaerobic Power in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review.” Sports Medicine 45, no. 1 (2015): 111–31. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0242-2.

Phinney, S. D., B. R. Bistrian, W. J. Evans, E. Gervino, and G. L. Blackburn. “The Human Metabolic Response to Chronic Ketosis Without Caloric Restriction: Preservation of Submaximal Exercise Capability with Reduced Carbohydrate Oxidation.” Metabolism 32, no. 8 (1983): 769–76.

Phinney, Stephen D. “Ketogenic Diets and Physical Performance.” Nutrition & Metabolism 1, no. 2 (2004). doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-1-2.

Ponnampalam, Eric N., Neil J. Mann, and Andrew J. Sinclair. “Effect of Feeding Systems on Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Trans Fatty Acids in Australian Beef Cuts: Potential Impact on Human Health.” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 15, no. 1 (2006): 21–29.

Prentice, Ross L., Bette Caan, Rowan T. Chlebowski, Ruth Patterson, Lewis H. Kuller, Judith K. Ockene, Karen L. Margolis et al. “Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 295, no. 6 (2006): 629–42. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.6.629.

Prentice, Ross L., Bette Caan, Rowan T. Chlebowski, Ruth Patterson, Lewis H. Kuller, Judith Ockene, Karen L. Margolis et al. “Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer: The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 295, no. 6 (2006): 629–42.

Prior, Ronald L., and G. H. Cao. “Analysis of Botanicals and Dietary Supplements for Antioxidant Capacity: A Review.” Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists International 83, no. 4 (2000): 950–56.

Raatz, Susan K., Jeffrey T. Silverstein, Lisa Jahns, and Matthew J. Picklo, Sr. “Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction.” Nutrients 5, no. 4 (2013): 1081–97. doi: 10.3390/nu5041081.

Rahal, Anu, Amit Kumar, Vivek Singh, Brijesh Yadav, Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, and Kuldeep Dhama. “Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay.” BioMed Research International 2014 (2014). doi: 10.1155/2014/761264.

Rajapakse, Niranjan, and Se-Kwon Kim. “Nutritional and Digestive Health Benefits of Seaweed.” Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 64 (2011): 17–28. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-387669-0.00002-8.

Ramsden, Christopher E., Daisy Zamora, Sharon Majchrzak-Hong, Keturah R. Faurot, Steven K. Broste, Robert P. Frantz, John M. Davis, Amit Ringel, Chirayath M. Suchindran, and Joseph R. Hibbeln. “Re-Evaluation of the Traditional Diet-Heart Hypothesis: Analysis of Recovered Data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968–73).” British Medical Journal (2016): 353. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i1246.

Redman, Leanne M., Leonie K. Heilbronn, Corby K. Martin, Lilian de Jonge, Donald A. Williamson, James P. Delany, and Eric Ravussin. “Metabolic and Behavioral Compensations in Response to Caloric Restriction: Implications for the Maintenance of Weight Loss.” PLoS ONE (2009). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004377.

Reeves III, James B., and John L. Weihrauch. Composition of Foods: Fats and Oils—Raw, Processed, Prepared. (Agriculture Handbook No. 84). Washington D. C.: USDA, 1979. https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/naldc/download.xhtml?id=CAT87209368&content=PDF.

Reger, Mark A., Samuel T. Henderson, Cathy Hale, Brenna Cholerton, Laura D. Baker, G. S. Watson, Karen Hyde, Darla Chapman, and Suzanne Craft. “Effects of Beta-Hydroxybutyrate on Cognition in Memory-Impaired Adults.” Neurobiology of Aging 25, no. 3 (2004): 311–14. doi: 10.1016/S0197-4580(03)00087-3.

Ridker, Paul M., Nader Rifai, Lynda Rose, Julie E. Buring, and Nancy R. Cook. “Comparison Of C-Reactive Protein and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in The Prediction of First Cardiovascular Events.” New England Journal of Medicine 347 (2002): 1557–65. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa021993.

Roberfroid, Marcel, Glenn R. Gibson, Lesley Hoyles, Anne L. McCartney, Robert Rastall, Ian Rowland, Danielle Wolvers et al. “Prebiotic Effects: Metabolic and Health Benefits.” British Journal of Nutrition 104, no. S2 (2010): S1-63. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510003363.

Rowlands, D. S., and W.G. Hopkins. “Effects of High-Fat and High-Carbohydrate Diets on Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.” Metabolism 51, no. 6 (2002): 678–90.

Rudman, Daniel, Axel G. Feller, Hoskote S. Nagraj, Gregory A. Gergans, Pardee Y. Lalitha, Allen F. Goldberg, Robert A. Schlenker, Lester Cohn, Inge W. Rudman, and Dale E. Mattson. “Effects of Human Growth Hormone in Men Over 60 Years Old.” New England Journal of Medicine 323, no. 1 (1990): 1–6. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199007053230101.

Russo, Gian Luigi. “Dietary N-6 And N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: From Biochemistry to Clinical Implications in Cardiovascular Prevention.” Biochemical Pharmacology 77, no. 6 (2009): 937–46. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2008.10.020.

Safdie, Fernando M., Tanya Dorff, David Quinn, Luigi Fontana, Min Wei, Changhan Lee, Pinchas Cohen, and Valter Longo. “Fasting and Cancer Treatment in Humans: A Case Series Report.” Aging 1, no. 12 (2009): 988–1007. doi: 10.18632/aging.100114.

Santos, F. L., S. S. Esteves, A. da Costa Pereira, William S. Yancy, Jr., and J. P. L. Nunes. “Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials of the Effects of Low Carbohydrate Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors.” Obesity Reviews 13, no. 1 (2012): 1048–66. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01021.x.

Schmidt, Michael E. Brain-Building Nutrition: How Dietary Fats and Oils Affect Mental, Physical, and Emotional Intelligence. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2001.

Seale, J. L., and J. M. Conway. “Relationship Between Overnight Energy Expenditure and BMR Measured in a Room-Sized Calorimeter.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, no. 2 (1999): 107–11.

Seaton, T. B., S. L. Welle, M. K. Warenko, and R. G. Campbell. “Thermic Effect of Medium-Chain and Long-Chain Triglycerides in Man.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44, no. 5 (1986): 630–34.

Seely, Stephen, and David F. Horrobin. “Diet and Breast Cancer: The Possible Connection with Sugar Consumption.” Medical Hypotheses 11, no. 3 (1983): 319–27. doi: 10.1016/0306-9877(83)90095-6.

Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate. “Dietary Goals for the United States.” Washington D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977. http://zerodisease.com/archive/Dietary_Goals_For_The_United_States.pdf

Seyfried, Thomas N., and Laura M. Shelton. “Cancer as a Metabolic Disease.” Nutrition & Metabolism 7, no. 7 (2010). doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-7-7.

Shahabi, Sima, Seddigheh Esmaeilzadeh, Masoumeh Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Mahboubeh Faramarzi, Ali Reza Firouzjahee, and Tayebeh Esmaeili. “Does Islamic Fasting Affect Gonadotropin Around Female Ovulation?” International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 4, no. 3 (2010): 94–97.

Shimomura, Iichiro, Robert E. Hammer, Shinji Ikemoto, Michael S. Brown, and Joseph L. Goldstein.. “Letters to Nature.” Nature 401 (1999): 73–76. doi: 10.1038/43448.

Shiraki, Masataka, Yumiko Shiraki, Choju Aoki, and Masakazu Miura. “Vitamin K2 (Menatetrenone) Effectively Prevents Fractures and Sustains Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporosis.” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 15, no. 3 (2000): 515–21. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.3.515.

Simopoulos, Artemis P. “Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acid Ratio and Chronic Diseases.” Food Reviews International 20, no. 1 (2004): 77–90. doi: 10.1081/FRI-120028831 8755-9129.

Siri-Tarino, Patty W., Qi Sun, Frank B. Hu, and Ronald M. Krauss. “Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies Evaluating the Association of Saturated Fat with Cardiovascular Disease.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, no. 3 (2010): 535–46. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725.

Siri-Tarino, Patty W., Qi Sun, Frank B. Hu, and Ronald M. Krauss. “Saturated Fat, Carbohydrate, and Cardiovascular Disease.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, no. 3 (2010): 502–9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26285.

Slattery, M. L., J. Benson, T. D. Berry, D. Duncan, S. L. Edwards, B. J. Caan, and J. D. Potter. “Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention Dietary Sugar and Colon Cancer.” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 6, no. 9 (1997): 677–85.

Slavin, Joanne. “Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits.” Nutrients 5, no. 4 (2013): 1417–35. doi: 10.3390/nu5041417.

Smith, Leland L. “Another Cholesterol Hypothesis: Cholesterol as Antioxidant.” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11, no. 1 (1991): 47–61.

Sofer, Sigal, Abraham Eliraz, Sara Kaplan, Hillary Voet, Gershon Fink, Tzadok Kima, and Zecharia Mada. “Greater Weight Loss and Hormonal Changes After 6 Months Diet with Carbohydrates Eaten Mostly at Dinner.” Obesity 19, no. 10 (2011): 2006–14. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.48.

Sondike, Stephen B., Nancy Copperman, and Marc S. Jacobson. “Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Overweight Adolescents.” Journal of Pediatrics 142, no. 3 (2003): 253–58. doi: 10.1067/mpd.2003.4.

Spronk, H. M. H., B. A. M. Soute, L. J. Schurgers, H. H. W. Thijssen, J. G. R. De Mey, and C. Vermeer. “Tissue-Specific Utilization of Menaquinone-4 Results in the Prevention of Arterial Calcification in Warfarin-Treated Rats.” Journal of Vascular Research 40 (2003): 531–537. doi: 10.1159/000075344.

St-Onge, Marie-Pierre, and Aubrey Bosarge. “Weight-Loss Diet That Includes Consumption of Medium-Chain Triacylglycerol Oil Leads to a Greater Rate of Weight and Fat Mass Loss Than Does Olive Oil.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87, no. 3 (2008): 621–26. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/87/3/621.long

St-Onge, Marie-Pierre, and Peter J. H. Jones. “Physiological Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides: Potential Agents in the Prevention of Obesity.” Journal of Nutritional 132, no. 3 (2002): 329–32.

St-Pierre, Annie C., Bernard Cantin, Gilles R. Dagenais, Pascale Mauriège, Paul-Marie Bernard, Jean-Pierre Després, and Benoît Lamarche. “Low-Density Lipoprotein Subfractions And the Long-Term Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease in Men 13-Year Follow-Up Data from the Québec Cardiovascular Study.” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 25, no. 3 (2005): 553–59, doi: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000154144.73236.f4.

Stubbs, R. J., and C. G. Harbron. “Covert Manipulation of the Ratio of Medium- to Long-Chain Triglycerides in Isoenergetically Dense Diets: Effect on Food Intake in Ad Libitum Feeding Men.” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 20, no. 5 (1996): 435–44.

Sumithran, P., L. A. Prendergast, E. Delbridge, K. Purcell, A. Shulkes, A. Kriketos, and J. Proietto. “Ketosis and Appetite-Mediating Nutrients and Hormones After Weight Loss.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, no. 7 (2013): 759–64. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.90.

Sundram, Kalyana, Tilakavati Karupaiah, and K. C. Hayes. “Stearic Acid-Rich Interesterified Fat and Trans-Rich Fat Raise the LDL/HDL Ratio and Plasma Glucose Relative to Palm Olein in Humans.” Nutrition & Metabolism 4, no. 3 (2007). doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-4-3.

Swallow, Dallas M. “Genetics of Lactase Persistence and Lactose Intolerance.” Annual Review of Genetics 37 (2003): 197–219. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genet.37.110801.143820.

Swanson, Danielle, Robert Block, and Shaker A. Mousa. “Omega-3 Fatty Acids EPA and DHA: Health Benefits Throughout Life.” Advances in Nutrition 3 (2012): 1–7. doi: 10.3945/an.111.000893.

Tarpila, S., A. Aro, I. Salminen, A. Tarpila, P. Kleemola, J. Akkila, and H. Adlercreutz. “The Effect of Flaxseed Supplementation in Processed Foods on Serum Fatty Acids and Enterolactone.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, no. 2 (2002): 157–65. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601298.

Taubes, Gary. “The Soft Science of Dietary Fat.” Science 291 (2001): 2536–45. doi: 10.1126/science.291.5513.2536

Teff, Karen L., Sharon S. Elliott, Matthias Tschöp, Timothy J. Kieffer, Daniel Rader, Mark Heiman, Raymond R. Townsend et al. “Dietary Fructose Reduces Circulating Insulin and Leptin, Attenuates Postprandial Suppression of Ghrelin, and Increases Triglycerides in Women.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89, no. 6 (2004): 2963–72. doi: 10.1210/jc.2003-031855.

Thomas, Jaya Mary, Joyamma Varkey, and Bibin Baby Augustine. “Association Between Serum Cholesterol, Brain Serotonin, and Anxiety: A Study in Simvastatin Administered Experimental Animals.” International Journal of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases 4, no. 1 (2014): 69–73. doi: 10.4103/2231-0738.124617.

Thusgaard, Marianne, Jesper H. Christensen, Birgitte Mørn, Tina S. Andersen, Runar Vige, Hanne Arildsen, Erik B. Schmidt, and Henrik Nielsen. “Effect of Fish Oil (N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids) on Plasma Lipids, Lipoproteins and Inflammatory Markers in HIV-Infected Patients Treated with Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease 41, no. 10 (2009): 760–66. doi: 10.1080/00365540903168056.

Toth, Peter P. “The ‘Good Cholesterol’: High-Density Lipoprotein.” Circulation 111 (2005): e89–91. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000154555.07002.CA.

Turpeinen A. M., S. Basu, and M. Mutanen. “A High Linoleic Acid Diet Increases Oxidative Stress In Vivo and Affects Nitric Oxide Metabolism in Humans.” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids 59, no. 3 (1998): 229–33.

Van Der Auwera, Ingrid, Stefaan Wera, Fred Van Leuven, and Samuel T. Henderson. “A Ketogenic Diet Reduces Amyloid Beta 40 and 42 In a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Nutrition & Metabolism 2, no. 28 (2005). doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-28.

Van Wymelbeke, V., A. Himaya, J. Louis-Sylvestre, and M. Fantino. “Influence of Medium-Chain and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols on the Control of Food Intake in Men.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, no. 2 (1998): 226–34.

Varady, Kristy A., Surabhi Bhutani, Emily C. Church, and Monica C. Klempel. “Short-Term Modified Alternate-Day Fasting: A Novel Dietary Strategy for Weight Loss and Cardioprotection in Obese Adults.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90, no. 5 (2009): 1138–43. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28380.

Veldhorst, Margriet A. B., Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga, and Klaas R. Westerterp. “Gluconeogenesis and Energy Expenditure After a High-Protein, Carbohydrate-Free Diet.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90, no. 3 (2009) 519–26. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27834.

Venturi, Sebastiano, and Marta Venturi. “Iodide, Thyroid and Stomach Carcinogenesis: Evolutionary Story of a Primitive Antioxidant?” European Journal of Endocrinology 140 (1999): 371–72. doi: 10.1530/eje.0.1400371.

Verhoeven, D. T. H., R. A. Goldbohm, G. van Poppel, H. Verhagen, and P. A. van den Brandt. “Epidemiological Studies on Brassica Vegetables and Cancer Risk.” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 5, no. 9 (1996): 733–48.

Volek, Jeff S., M. J. Sharman, A. L. Gómez, D. A. Judelson, M. R. Rubin, G. Watson, B. Sokmen et al. “Comparison of Energy-Restricted Very Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets on Weight Loss and Body Composition in Overweight Men and Women.” Nutrition & Metabolism 1, no. 13 (2004): doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-1-13.

Volek, Jeff S., Maria Luz Fernandez, Richard D. Feinman, and Stephen D. Phinney. “Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction Induces a Unique Metabolic State Positively Affecting Atherogenic Dyslipidemia, Fatty Acid Partitioning, and Metabolic Syndrome.” Progress in Lipid Research 47 (2008): 307–18. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2008.02.003.

Volk, Brittanie M., Laura J. Kunces, Daniel J. Freidenreich, Brian R. Kupchak, Catherine Saenz, Juan C. Artistizabal, Maria Luz Fernandez et al. “Effects of Step-Wise Increases in Dietary Carbohydrate on Circulating Saturated Fatty Acids and Palmitoleic Acid in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome.” PLoS ONE 9, no. 11 (2014): e113605. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113605.

Volkow, N. D., G. J. Wang, J. S. Fowler, D. Tomasi, and R. Baler. “Food and Drug Reward: Overlapping Circuits in Human Obesity and Addiction.” In Brain Imaging in Behavioral Neuroscience, edited by Cameron S. Carter and Jeffrey W. Dailey, 1–24. Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. doi: 10.1007/7854_2011_169.

Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center. “Trans Fat Leads to Weight Gain Even on Same Total Calories, Animal Study Shows.” Published June 19, 2006. www.wakehealth.edu/News-Releases/2006/Trans_Fat_Leads_To_Weight_Gain_Even_on_Same_Total_Calories,_Animal_Study_Shows.htm.

Wanders, A. J., J. J. G. C. van den Borne, C. de Graaf, T. Hulshof, M. C. Jonathan, M. Kristensen, M. Mars, H. A. Schols, and E. J. Feskens. “Effects of Dietary Fibre On Subjective Appetite, Energy Intake and Body Weight: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Obesity Reviews 12, no. 9 (2011): 724–39. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00895.x.

Watras, Abigail C., A. C. Buchholz, R. N. Close, Z. Zhang, and D. A. Schoeller. “The Role of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Reducing Body Fat and Preventing Holiday Weight Gain.” International Journal of Obesity 31, no. 3 (2007): 481–87. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803437.

Wax, Emily. “Calcium in Diet.” Medline Plus. Reviewed February 2, 2015. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002412.htm

Weigle, David S., Patricia A. Breen, Colleen C. Matthys, Holly S. Callahan, Kaatje E. Meeuws, Verna R. Burden, and Jonathan Q. Purnell. “A High-Protein Diet Induces Sustained Reductions in Appetite, Ad Libitum Caloric Intake, and Body Weight Despite Compensatory Changes in Diurnal Plasma Leptin and Ghrelin Concentrations.” American Society for Clinical Nutrition 82, no. 1 (2005): 41–48. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/82/1/41.long.

West, Rebecca, Michael Schnaider Beeri, James Schmeidler, Christine M. Hannigan, Gary Angelo, Hillel T. Grossman, Clive Rosendorff, and Jeremy M. Silverman. “Better Memory Functioning Associated with Higher Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Very Elderly Subjects Without the Apolipoprotein E4 Allele.” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 16, no. 9 (2008): 781–85. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181812790.

Westman, Eric C., and Mary C. Vernon. “Has Carbohydrate-Restriction Been Forgotten as a Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus? A Perspective on the ACCORD Study Design,” Nutrition & Metabolism 5 (2008): 10. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-5-10.

Westman, Eric C., Richard D. Feinman, John C. Mavropoulos, Mary C. Vernon, Jeff S. Volek, James A. Wortman, William S. Yancy, Jr., and Stephen D. Phinney. “Low-Carbohydrate Nutrition and Metabolism.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86, no. 2 (2007): 276–84.

Westman, Eric C., William S. Yancy, Jr., John C. Mavropoulos, Megan Marquart, and Jennifer R. McDuffie. “The Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus a Low-Glycemic Index Diet on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” Nutrition & Metabolism 5, no. 36 (2008). doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-5-36.

Whigham, Leah D., Abigail C. Watras, and Dale A. Schoeller. “Efficacy of Conjugated Linoleic Acid for Reducing Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis in Humans.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85, no. 5 (2007): 1203–11. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/85/5/1203.long.

Willett, Walter C., M. J. Stampfer, J. E. Manson, G. A. Colditz, F.E. Speizer, B.A. Rosner, L. A. Sampson, and C.H. Hennekens. “Intake of Trans Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Among Women.” Lancet 341, no. 8845 (1993): 581–85. doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(93)90350-P.

Wolk, Alicja, Reinhold Bergström, David Hunter, Walter C. Willett, Hakån Ljung, Lars Holmberg, Leif Bergkvist, Åke Bruce, and Hans-Olov Adami. “A Prospective Study of Association of Monounsaturated Fat and Other Types of Fat with Risk of Breast Cancer.” Archives of Internal Medicine 158, no. 1 (1998): 41–45. doi: 10.1001/archinte.158.1.41.

Wood, Richard J., Jeff S. Volek, Yanzhu Liu, Neil S. Shachter, John H. Contois, and Maria Luz Fernandez. “Carbohydrate Restriction Alters Lipoprotein Metabolism by Modifying VLDL, LDL, And HDL Subfraction Distribution and Size in Overweight Men.” Journal of Nutrition 136, no. 2 (2006): 384–89.

Wu, Felicia, Shaina L. Stacy, and Thomas W. Kensler. “Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?” Toxicological Sciences 135, no. 1 (2013): 251–59. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft132.

Wymelbeke, V. Van, A. Himaya, J. Louis-Sylvestre, and M. Fantino. “Influence of Medium-Chain and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols on the Control of Food Intake in Men.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, no. 2 (1998): 226–34.

Xu, Jiqu, Xiaoqi Zhou, Chang Chen, Qianchun Deng, Qingde Huang, Jin’e Yang, Nianhong Yang, and Fenghong Huang. “Laxative Effects of Partially Defatted Flaxseed Meal on Normal and Experimental Constipated Mice.” BioMed Central Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12, no. 14 (2012). doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-14.

Yancy Jr., William S., Marjorie Foy, Allison M. Chalecki, Mary C. Vernon, and Eric C. Westman. “A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet to Treat Type 2 Diabetes.” Nutrition & Metabolism 2, no. 34 (2005). doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-34.

Zauner, Christian, Bruno Schneeweiss, Alexander Kranz, Christian Madl, Klaus Ratheiser, Ludwig Kramer, Erich Roth, Barbara Schneider, and Kurt Lenz. “Resting Energy Expenditure in Short-Term Starvation Is Increased as a Result of an Increase in Serum Norepinephrine.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, no. 6 (2000): 1511–15. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/6/1511.full.

Zhong, Zhi, Micheal D. Wheeler, Xiangli Li, Matthias Froh, Peter Schemmer, Ming Yin, Hartwig Bunzendaul, Blair Bradford, and John J. Lemasters. “L-Glycine: A Novel Antiinflammatory, Immunomodulatory, and Cytoprotective Agent.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care 6, no. 2 (2003): 229–40.